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Beancount 账户命名

2021-01-13

命名是计算科学中最难的两件事,Beancount 的账户的命名尤其困难。对于从其他记账工具迁移过来的用户,直接将原先的账户结构迁移过来当然是可以的。但是 Beancount 这种文本记账工具,对于账户的处理几乎没有成本,可以任性地添加更多的账户。直接复制原来工具的账户结构可能无法完全发挥 Beancount 的能力。

我个人为 Beancount 的账户命名有提供以下几点指导:

  1. 账户命名在可接受的范围内尽量详细,有账户补全这样的功能在,多级账户名锁造成的额外负担是很小的。带来的好处是显而易见的,最终形成的报表详尽而清晰。此外,在后期使用正则替换合并账户是很容易的,但是拆分账户只能对每一条记录进行检查。
  2. 多使用多级账户,在 fava 中折叠次级账户后,可以清晰地看到上一级账户的总额。
  3. 尽量遵从你的直觉,想象你在以后遇到一笔账户,直觉告诉你应该放到哪个账户。这样可以最大地降低记账的认知负担。当然,这一点可以随着使用慢慢优化自己的账户命名,毕竟文本账本的一大优点就是可以方便地进行正则替换。

最后附上一些其他记账工具默认的账户命名,可供参考。

  • MoneyWiz 默认账户名

      Automobile
          Accessories
          Car Insurance
          Gas/Fuel
          Lease
          Maintenance
          Other
          Parking
      Bills
          Cable
          Electricity
          Gas
          Internet/Broadband
          Mobile Phone
          Other
          Phone
          Water
      Clothing
          Accessories
          Clothes
          Jewelry
          Other
          Shoes
      Digital
          Apps
          Books
          Movies
          Music
          Other
          Podcasts
          TV Shows
      Food & Dining
          Dining/Eating Out
          Groceries
          Other
      Health Care
          Dental
          Eye Care
          Health Insurance
          Medical
          Other
          Pharmacy
      Housing
          Furniture/Accessories
          Home Insurance
          Maintenance
          Mortgage
          Other
          Rent
      Leisure
          Entertainment
          Fitness/Sport
          Other
          Personal Care
      Loans
          Other
          Taxes
          Transportation
          Travel
    
  • mint-categories https://www.mint.com/mint-categories

      Expenses (all types)
          1. Rent/Mortgage
              a. Home Owners Association Dues
              b. Rental Insurance
              c. Home Owners Insurance
          2. Fixed Expenses
              a. Utilities
              b. Gas
              c. Electric
              d. Water/Trash/Sewer
              e. Cable/Internet/Phone
              f. Cell Phone
              g. Credit Cards
              h. Car Expenses
              i. Maintenance
              j. Gas
          3. Extra Expenses
              a. Grocery (Food)
              b. Clothes/Shoes/Hygiene
              c. Extra for Home Expenses
          4. Savings
              a. Savings Account. Speak with employer; some saving plans can pull from paycheck before taxes. That means less of your paycheck is taxable.
              b. Create an Emergency Fund; it should be at least 6 months of expenses. Emergencies can happen and drain a well-established savings account
          5. Taxes
              a. No explanation needed
          6. Fun Cash
              a. Out with friends
              b. Movies
              c. Vacations
    
  • GnuCash

      Adjustment
      Auto
          Fees
          Gas
          Parking
          Repair and Maintenance
      Bank Service Charge
      Books
      Cable
      Charity
      Clothes
      Computer
      Dining
      Education
      Entertainment
          Music/Movies
          Recreation
          Travel
      Gifts
      Groceries
      Hobbies
      Insurance
          Auto Insurance
          Health Insurance
          Life Insurance
      Laundry/Dry Cleaning
      Medical Expenses
      Miscellaneous
      Online Services
      Phone
      Public Transportation
      Subscriptions
      Supplies
      Taxes
          Federal
          Medicare
          Other Tax
          Social Security
          State/Province
      Utilities
          Electric
          Garbage collection
          Gas
          Water
    
  • beancount-boilerplate-cn 这个项目中的账户命名也可以参考。


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